Project Management Glossary


# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 25 terms in this directory beginning with the letter E.
Early start date
The earliest time by which a scheduled project activity can logically start.

Earned schedule
A method of measuring schedule performance that improves upon traditional earned value management. Earned value management tracks schedule variance only in terms of money and not in terms of time and thus does not accurately indicate schedule performance by the end of a project. To address this discrepancy, earned schedule theory uses the same data as traditional earned value management but tracks schedule performances separately with respect to money and time.

Earned value
A concept used to gauge project schedule and cost performance. Portions of the project budget are assigned to components of the work breakdown structure, and successful completion of a work breakdown structure component is understood as value earned through work.

Earned value management
A method of measuring project performance and progress with regard to scope, time, and costs. It is based on the use of planned value (where portions of the budget are allotted to all project tasks), and earned value (where progress is measured in terms of the planned value that is earned upon completion of tasks).

The amount of labor needed to complete a task. It is measured in person-hours or similar units.

Effort estimate
A calculated approximation of the effort — measured in staff-hours or similar units — needed to complete an activity.

Effort management
The most efficient allocation of time and resources to project activities.

End user
The person or persons who will eventually use the product of a project. Products are designed with end users in mind.

Enhancement, maintenance, and upgrade (EMU)
Enhancement, maintenance, and upgrade are project classifications used in the software development industry. Enhancement projects involve improving the functionality or performance of software. Maintenance projects keep software functioning as expected. Upgrade projects create a new version of the software, called a release.

Enterprise environmental factors
Internal and external factors that can impact projects. They include such things as climate, available resources, and organizational structure.

Enterprise modeling
Enterprise modeling is the creation of a model to represent an organization’s structure, processes, and resources. Enterprise models are built to increase understanding of how organizations work. They form the basis of improvement or restructuring efforts.

A set of similar or related user stories.

Estimate at completion (EAC)
The estimated total cost for all project work, calculated as the sum of the actual cost and the estimate to complete.

Estimate to complete (ETC)
At a given point in a project, the estimate of the cost of the work that still needs to be completed.

Estimating funnel
A metaphor for the increased accuracy in estimation made possible as a project progresses.

The use of estimating techniques to reach approximations of unknown values.

Event chain diagram
A visual representation of a schedule network based on event chain methodology. It shows relationships between project activities and risk events.

Event chain methodology
A schedule network analysis method that enables uncertainty modeling. It is used to identify risk events’ impact on a schedule.

The adjective describes an action that is prompted by the occurrence of an event.

Execution phase
The execution phase begins after activity approval and is the phase in which the team executes the project plan. Execution is typically the longest and most expensive phase in the project management life cycle.

Executive sponsor
Typically a member of the organization’s board who is ultimately responsible for the success of the project. They provide high-level direction to project managers and are accountable to the board for project success.

Expert judgment
The practice of using expert opinion to guide decision making.

External dependency
An outside relationship that affects the completion of a project activity.

Extreme programming (XP)
An agile software development methodology that emphasizes a high degree of responsiveness to evolving customer demands. Development cycles in extreme programming are short, and releases are frequent. Its main features include high-volume communication with customers and pair programming.

Extreme project management (XPM)
An approach to project management used mostly for complex projects with a high degree of uncertainty. XPM is designed for projects where requirements are expected to change. Therefore, it focuses on flexibility more than rigid scheduling. Where traditional project management proceeds sequentially through the project management life cycle and thus clearly defines problems, scopes, and solutions, extreme project management accepts that all three aspects will change as the project proceeds and thus emphasizes continual learning over deterministic planning.
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